Observations on the Mussulmauns of India
By Meer Hassan Ali

Presented by

Public Domain Books

Bibliography of Works


Arnold, T.W. The Preaching of Islam, London, 1896.

Beale, T.W. An Oriental Biographical Dictionary, London, 1894.

Burton, Sir R.F. The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, 12 vols., London, 1894.

Burton, Sir R.F. A Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca, 2 vols., London, 1893.

Crooke, W. The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India, 2 vols., Westminster, 1896.

Fanshawe, H.C. Delhi Past and Present, London, 1902.

Fazalalullah Lutfullah, ’Gujarat Musalmans’, in Bombay Gazetteer, ix, part ii, Bombay, 1899.

Führer, A. The Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, Allahabad, 1891.

Irwin, H.C. The Garden of India, London, 1880.

Jaffur Shurreef, Qanoon-e-Islam, or the Customs of the Mussulmans of India, trans. G.A. Herklots, Madras, 1863.

Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh, 3 vols., Lucknow, 1877.

Hughes, T.P. A Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885.

[Knighton, W.] The Private Life of an Eastern King, London, 1855.

Koran, The, trans. J.M. Rodwell, Everyman’s Library, London, n.d.; by G. Sale, London, 1844.

Lane, E.W. An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, 2 vols., 5th ed., London, 1871.

Mishcat-ul Masabih, by Muhammad ibn ’Abd Allah, trans. A.N. Matthews, 2 vols., Calcutta, 1809-10.

Ockley, S. History of the Saracens, London, 1848.

Parks, F. Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque, 2 vols., London, 1852.

Polly, Col. Sir L. The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain, collected from Oral Tradition, 2 vols., London, 1879.

Sell, E. The Faith of Islam, Madras, 1880.

Sleeman, Major-Gen. Sir W.H. A Journey through the Kingdom of Oudh, in 1849-1850, 2 vols., London, 1858.

Sleeman, Major-Gen. Sir W.H. Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official, ed. V.A. Smith, 2 vols., Westminster, 1893.

Watt, Sir G. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, 6 vols., Calcutta, 1889-93.

Yule, Col. H., Burnell, A.C. Hobson-Jobson, 2nd ed., London, 1903.



Aameen, Ameen, Ami, Amen
Aaroon, Aaron
Abass Ali, ’Abbas, nephew of Husain;
  Abass Ali Huzerut ke Durgah, Hazrat ’Abbas ’Ali ki dargah
Aboubuker, Abubakr, the Caliph
Abraham, sacrifice of Ishmael;
  his title
Abstinence during the Muharram festival
Adam, his burial-place;
  his title;
  image of
Affrine Khaun, Afrin Khan, a eunuch
Afthaadah, aftabgir, a sun-shade
Agha Mir, minister in Oudh
Ahmud Kaabeer, Sayyid Ahmad Kabir, a saint
Akbhar Shah, Akbar Shah II, King of Delhi
Akbar, the Moghul Emperor, his capture of Chitor
Alexandria, alleged destruction of the library at
Ali, ’Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad;
  murder of;
  imparted knowledge to the Sufis
Ali Reezah, Ar-Raza
Ali Ul Hoodah, ’Ali ul Huda
Al-kauloek, alkhalaq, a coat with sleeves
Allah Khareem, Al-Karim, ’the generous one’
Allah wo uckbaar, Allah u akbar, ’God is most great’
Alligators, caught by monkeys
Allum, ’alam, a standard
Allumgeer, ’Alamgir, the Emperor Aurangzeb
Al Mauss Ali Khaun, Almas ’Ali Khan, a eunuch
Almsgiving at the Muharram festival
Alrouschid, Harun-al-Rashid, the Caliph
Amulets for children
Amusements of children
Angels, the attendant
Animal, fights at the Court of Oudh;
  mode of slaughtering by Musalmans;
  life, sanctity of
Antelopes, hunted by leopards
  sugar laid near their nests;
Arg, arka, the fire plant
Arms, polishers of
Arrack, ’araq, spirits
Artoojee, ustadji, a teacher
Artush-baajie, atishbazi, fireworks
’Ashura, the last day of the Muharram festival
Asof ood Duolah, Nawab Asaf-ud-daula;
  his proclamation against infanticide
Asthma, a cure for
Ausmaun, ’Usman, the Caliph
Ausur namaaz, ’asr ki namaz, prayer at the third watch of the day
Ayah, aya, a nurse
Ayashur, Ayishah, wife of Muhammad

Baalee Peer, Bala Pir
Baaraat, barat. the procession of the bridegroom
Baarah Daree, barahdari a room with twelve doors
Babool, babul, the tree acacia arabicaBacherkaunie, baqirkhani, a kind of bread
Ba daanah, bedanah, seedless grapes
Baer, ber, the tree Zizyphus JujubaBahadhoor, bahadur, ’a champion’, a title of honour
Baittee, beti, a daughter
  uses of;
  flowering of;
  set on fire by friction
Banner of Husain (see ALLUM)
Bareheaded people not allowed in a house
Basun, besan, pulse flour
Bazars described
Beards worn by Musalmans;
  dyeing of
Bearer caste, the
Beeby Sahib, bibi sahiba, an English lady
Beggar, a famous, in Lucknow
Begum, begam, a title of a Sayyid lady
Biles and blains
  catchers of;
  released in time of sickness
Birth rites,
  scanty rejoicings at birth of a girl;
  first dose of medicine;
  bathing of child;
  forty days’ impurity after childbirth;
  gifts made to the child;
  birthday celebrations;
  child carried to the Dargah
Bis ma Allah, bi’smi’llah, ’in the name of Allah’
Bleeding, procedure at
Blistering, flies used for
Blood-spitting; cure for
Blue stone, a remedy for snakebites
Boats set adrift in honour of Khwaja Khizr
Bodice, the
Bohue Begum, Bahu Begum, a daughter-in-law
Bootkhanah, butkhanah, an idol temple
Borehaun, burhan, the critical days of fever
Bows and arrows, use of
Brahmanical cords burnt
Bread, varieties of
Bricks, ancient
  the peculium of;
  modes of selecting;
  dress of
Bridegroom, veil worn by
Brushes for hair and teeth
Buckaria, Bokhara
Buckrah Eade, the baqarah id, festival;
  gifts sent at
Budgerow, a kind of boat
Bull-bull, bulbul, the nightingale
Bundah Kungoon, Bandar Kangun
Bunyah, Baniya, a corn merchant
Buraq, the animal on which Muhammad flew to Mecca
Burbut, bargat, the banyan tree
Burghutt, caste, regard for animal life
Burial rites, purification after touching the corpse; see DEATH.
Burkhundhar, barqandaz, a man armed with a matchlock
Burqa’, a woman’s veil
Burrhsaatie, barsati a disease of horses
Burruff wallah, barfwala a seller of ice
Bushire, a town on the Persian Gulf
Bussorah, Basra, a town on the Shatt el Arab in Asiatic Turkey
Bussund, basant, the spring festival
Butcher bird, the
Buttaire, bater, a quail
Butter sellers
Buttooah, batua, ornamented bag
Bytool Faakere, baitu’l-faqir, ’the house of a holy man’

Cain, reputed founder of Kanauj
Caliphas, khalifah, of Shi’ahs and Sunnis;
  a head of a trade or profession
Camphor, used in treating cholera;
  in burial rites
Cardimun, the cardamom
Cards, the game of
Carounder, karaunda, Carissa CarandasCastanets, see CHUCKIE
Catechu, used with betel
Cattle, slaughter of, objected to by Hindus
Chaff, thrown on the head in mourning
Chain at the Ka’bah;
  of justice, put up by Jahangir
Chair, right to use
Chapaatie, chapata, a griddle cake
Charaagh, chiragh, a lamp
Charity, a religious duty;
  among Musalmans
Charpoy, charpai, a kind of bed
Chatnee, chatni, a kind of relish
Chattah, chhata, an umbrella
Cheek, chiq, a door screen
Cheetah, chita, a hunting leopard
Children, fasting of
Chillum, chilam, the bowl of a water-pipe, the tobacco used to
fill it
Chillumchee, chilamchi, a wash-hand basin
Chilubdhaar, chalapdar, a cymba player
China vessels, use of
Chirrya wallah, chiryawala, a bird-catcher
Chitcherah, chichra, the Achryanthes aspera tree
Chitlah, chitra, a kind of melon
Chobdhaah, Chobdhaar, chobdar, a mace-bearer
Chokeedhar, chaukidar, a watchman
  cures for
Chowrie, Chowry, chauri, a yak tail fan
Chowsah, chausa, four-sided, of dice
Chubbaynee, chabena, parched grain
Chuckie, Chuckee, charkhi, a kind of castanets;
  chakki, a grindstone
Chuddah, Chudha, chadar, a sheet
Chuhsah, chhahsa, six-sided, of dice
Chumund, chaman, a flower bed
Chundole, chandol, a kind of sedan chair
Chupha, chhappar, a thatched shed
Chupkund, chapkan, a kind of coat
Cider, made from melon juice
Clepsydra, used to mark time
Cloak, hooded, worn by women
Coel, koil, a kind of cuckoo
Cookery, in Musalman families
Cooking, prohibited in the house of mourning
Cord, Brahmanical, burned
Cossum, Qasim, nephew of Husain;
  model of his tomb taken in procession
Courtie, kurti, a woman’s jacket
Cowry shells
Cream sellers
Cries of hawkers
Crown of the King of Oudh
Crows, impudence of
Cummerbund, kamarband, a waist-cloth, girdle
Curd sellers.
Currie, karhiCutlers
Cuttie, khatai, soured milk;
  kath, gum used with pan

Daak, dak, the letter post
Daaood, Daud, David, his mother’s prayer
Dacca cloths
Damascus fig, the
Dancing, considered degrading;
Dates, eating of
Dead, food for the;
  period of mourning for
Death rites
Debt, imprisonment for, said to be forbidden
Decca, Dacca
Delhi described
Deluge, said not to be known in India
Deputtah, dopatta, a double sheet
Devotees, Musalman.
Dhall, dal, pulse
Dhaullie, dali, a basket of fruit and vegetables
Dhie, dahi, curds
Dhie mudgelluss, dah majlis, the ten days of the Muharram festival
Dhobie, dhobi, a washerman
Dholle, dhol, a drum
Dhollie, a ’dooly’, a litter;
Dhome, a drum
Dhull Dhull, Duldul, the mule of Muhammad
Dhurzie, darzi, the tailor caste
Dice, games played with
Dimishk, Dimashq, Damascus
Dinar, dinar, denarius, a coin
Dinners provided in time of mourning
Dirzy; see DHURZIE
Divination in selecting a bride
Dog, an impure animal
Domenie, Domni, a singing woman
Dooar prayer, du’a, supplication
Doob grass, dub, Cynodon DactylonDowry of bride, how fixed
Draughts, the game of
Dress, not changed during the Muharram festival;
  of a bride
Duffelee, dafali, the drummer caste
Dukhaun, dukan, a shop
Dulhaun, dalan, the hall, entrance of a house
Dullha, dulha, a bridegroom
Dullun, dulhin, a bride
Dunkah, danka, a kettle-drum;
  dunkah wallah, dankawala, a drummer
Dunyah, dhaniya, coriander
Durbar, darbar, a court
Durgah, dargah, a saint’s shrine;
  processions to, at Lucknow
Durwaun, darwan, a doorkeeper
Durweish, darvesh a beggar, a religious mendicant;
  pretenders to the title
Dustha-khawn, dastarkhwan, a table-cloth
Dustoor, dastur, custom,
  the percentages on purchases taken by native servants

Eade, ’Id, a festival;
  eade-gaarh, ’Idgah,
  the place where the festival rites are performed
Ear cleaners
Earwax, human, administered to elephants
  follow a flight of locusts;
  Kanauj damaged by
Eclipse observances
Eggs sent at the Nauroz festival
Elephant trained to march in time;
  carriages drawn by;
  beggar riding on;
  etiquette on meeting the king
Elias ky kishtee, Ilyas ki kishti,
  boats set adrift in honour of Khwaja Khizr
Elijah, Elisha, the prophet
Emaum, Imam, leaders of the faithful;
  Jaffur Saadick, Ja’far as-Sadiq
Emaum baarah, Imambara,
  the place where the Muharram rites are performed
Emaum zamunee, imam zamini,
  a charm to secure safety in a journey
English women not visiting the Lucknow bazar
Esaee, ’Isa ’l-Masih, Jesus Christ, the Messiah
Eshaa namaaz, salatu ’l-’Isha, the night prayer
Etiquette in the zenanah;
  at the Court of Oudh
Eunuchs, their power in the Court of Oudh;
  tale of a pilgrim
Eve, the grave of
Execution of criminals
Exercise, modes of, used by young men
Exorcism of evil spirits
Eyes decorated with antimony

Faakeer, faqir, a beggar, holy man
Fahteeah, al Fatihah, the first chapter of the Koran
Falsah, phalsa, falsa, the fruit Grewia asiaticaFasting;
  exemptions from
Fat, not eaten by Musalmans
Fatima, Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad;
  an Arab girl purchased
Feringhee Bargh, Farangi Bagh, ’the Franks’ Garden
Fierdowsee, Firdausi, the poet;
  translations of;
  on slavery
Fig, the
Fire, jumping into, and walking through
Fireworks at the Shab-i-Bara’at festival;
Firing guns at the birth of a boy
Fish, use of;
  varieties prohibited for use as food;
  a symbol at the Court of Oudh
Flags, in use at the Court of Oudh
Flies, inconvenience from;
  a variety which produces blisters
Flower gardens, neglect of;
  in Moghul palaces
Flowers, scent of, the food of aerial spirits
Folk tales, told in the zenanah;
  tale reciters;
  tale of Daaood;
  of the Prophet;
  of pilgrims;
  of a charitable Arab;
  of Syaad Harshim;
  of a saint changing the course of a river;
  of an ungrateful snake;
  of a king who longed for a fruit
Food, for the dead;
  not cooked in a house of mourning;
  lawful for Musalmans
Fraught, Furat, the river Euphrates
Friday, the Musalman Sabbath
Fruit, use of;
  sellers of
Furniture in the zenanah
Furrukhabaad, Farrukhabad, Nawab of

Gabriel, the Angel;
  inspires the Koran
Games played by boys;
  in the zenanah
Gaming prohibited
Genii, the Jinn
Ghauzee ood deen, Ghazi-ud-diu, King of Oudh
Ghee, ghi, clarified butter
Ghurrie, ghari, a space of about twenty minutes
Glass, gilas, a cherry
Glass, vessels, use of;
  use in windows
Goatah chandnie, gola chandni, lace
Goattur, gota, a substitute for betel, at the Muharram
God, ninety-nine names of
Golard, Goulard water
Gooderie, gudri, a quilt
Goolbudden, gulbadan, a silk fabric
Goolistaun, Gulistan of Sa’adi
Goomtie, the river Gumti
Gootlie, guthli, the first dose given to a baby
Grain, threshing and winnowing of
Gram, a kind of chick pea, Cicer arietinumGreen, the colour preferred by Sayyids;
  symbolizing Hasan
Grief, exhibition of, at the Muharram festival
Guaver, the guava fruit
Guinah, genda, the marigold
Gurdonie, gardani, a neck ring
Gurhum dahnie, garm dahani prickly heat

Haafiz, Hafiz, the Persian poet
Haarh, har, a necklace;
  see HARRH
Hackery, chhakra, a bullock carriage
Hadge, hajj, pilgrimage to holy places
Hadjee, hajji, a pilgrim
Hafiz, a man who has learned the Koran by heart
Hafsah, the wife of Muhammad
Hair, mode of dressing;
  let loose at the Muharram festival;
  not shaven in mourning
Hand, spread, a symbol;
  left, not used in eating
Harrh, har, a necklace;
  see HAARH
Harshim Syaad, Sayyid Hashim, tale of
Hasan, the martyr;
  Hasan ul Ushkeree, Hasan al-Askari
Hatim Tai
Haundhee, audhi, a dust storm
Haverdewatt. avadavat, the bird estrelda amadara;
  see LOLLAH
Heifer, sacrifice of
Herbs used in cooking
Hindu gods, images of
Holie, the Holi festival
Hookha, huqqah, the water-pipe;
  etiquette in use of;
  makers of ’snakes’ for
Horse racing at Lucknow
Horses, food of;
  use of heel ropes;
  marks on;
  paces of;
  shoes fixed on doors;
  tails and legs dyed;
  tails not docked;
  use of in carriages
Hosein, Husain, the martyr;
  disposal of his head
Howdah, haudah, a seat fixed on an elephant
Hudeeth, hadis, the sayings of the Prophet
Hummoomaun, the monkey god Hanuman
Hummoon Shah, Hamun Shah
Hurkaarah, harkara, a footman, messenger
Hurrh, al-Hurr, the Shami leader
Hurrundh, arand, the castor-oil plant
Hurth Maaree, the scene of the slaughter of the martyrs
Husbandmen, life of
Huzerut, hazrat, a title of respect
Hydrabaad, Hyderabad
Hydrophobia, a cure for
Hyza, haiza, cholera

Ibrahim, son of the Prophet;
  Ibraahim Mukhaun, Ibrahim Makan,
  ’the place of Abraham’, at Mecca
Idolatry prohibited to Musalmans
Infanticide among Musalmans
Ishmael, son of the Prophet;
  sacrifice of
Islaaim, Islam

Ja’adah poisons Hasan
Jaffur Saadick, the Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq
Jahaun-punah, jahan panah, a title of honour, ’asylum of the world’
Jahmun, Jamun, jaman, jamun, the fruit Eugenia Jambolana;
  see JARMUN
Jains, their tenderness for animal life
Jarmun, see JAHMUN
Jaullie, jali, netting
Jerusalem, pilgrimage to
Jessamine tree, the
Jesus Christ, the Musalman title of;
  His Nativity;
  His Coming
Jewellery, craving of women for;
  put aside at the Muharram festival
Jhaawn namaaz, ja’e namaz, a prayer carpet
Jhammah, jama, a long gown
Jhaumdanie, jamdani, an ornamented bag
Jhanngeer, the Emperor Jahangir, his chain of justice
Jhewl, jhul, the trappings of an elephant
Jhillmun, jhilmil, venetian shutters for doors and windows
Jhy Singh, Raja Jai Singh, his observatories
Jillewdhar, jilaudur, an attendant on a man of rank
Jinn, the
Joel, the Prophet
Jonk, a leech
Joshun, joshan, an ornament worn by women on the upper arm
Judee, Mount
Jumma musjid, Jumna musjid, Jame’ masjid, a congregational mosque
Justice, administration of in Oudh

Kaabah, Ka’bah, the holy place at Mecca;
  water spout at
Kaanaut, qanat, the side walls of a tent
Kaarawaun, kawan, a caravan
Kaareem Zund, Karim Khan Zand, anecdote of;
Kaarjil, kajal, lampblack applied to the eyes
Kaawaus, khawass, a special female attendant
Kabooza, kharbuzah, the melon
Kalipha, khalifah, a Caliph, head servant;
Kallonie wallah, khilauniwala, a toy-seller
Kannoge, the city of Kanauj;
  founded by Cain;
  destroyed by an earthquake
Katorah, katora, a shallow drinking cup
Kauflaah, kafilah, a caravan
Kaullie Nuddee, the Kali Nadi river
Kauzy, Qazi, a Musalman law officer
Keebaab, kabab, pieces of meat roasted on skewers
Keerah, kira, a leech
Ketcherie, khichri, rice cooked with pulse and spices
Kettledrum, the;
  see DUNKAH
Khadijah, wife of the Prophet
Khareem Zund;
Khaun, khan, ’lord’, a title of honour
Khaunce, Kansa, King of Mathura
Khaunie, a folk tale
Kheer, khir, milk boiled with rice
Khidmutghar, khidmatgar, a table servant
Khillaut, khil’at, a robe of honour
Khodah Afiz, Khuda hafiz, ’God be your Protector!’
Khoraan, the Koran, Qur’an;
  its history;
  not to be translated;
  taught to girls;
  its doctrine regarding women;
  passages of, inscribed as amulets;
  learnt by heart;
  readers of
Khus-khus, khaskhas,
  the fragrant root of the grass Andropogon muricatusKhusru Parviz, King of Persia
Khwaja Khizr, the saint
Kiblaah, qiblah, the direction assumed in prayer
Killaah, qal’a qil’a, a fort
Kirhnee, kirni, the fruit Canthium parviflorumKirrich, kirch, a straight thrusting sword
Kishtee, kishti, a boat
Kitchens in the zenanah
Koofah, the city Kufah
Kootub, the Qutb Minar pillar at Delhi
Kornea, Kanhaiya, Krishna
Koss, kos, a measure of distance, about two miles
Kraabaalah, Kerbela, Karbala, the holy city
Kuffin, kafn, a coffin, winding-sheet
Kummeruck, kamrak, the  fruit Averrhoa CarambolaKungoon, Bandar Kangun in the Persian Gulf
Kurah, kora, aloe water
Kurbootah, kharbuza, the shaddock fruit
Kutcher, khichar, rice boiled with pulse and spices

Labaadah, Labaadh, labada, a rain-coat
Labaun, loban, frankincense;
Ladies, European, not visiting bazars;
  Musalman, conversation of
Lahaaf, lahaf, a quilt
Lahbaun, see LABAUN
Lampblack, applied to the eyes
Lance, exercises with the
Leopards trained for sport
Leech vendors
Leechie, lichi, the fruit Nephelium LichiLeft hand used for ablution, not for eating with
Letters, dedicated to God
Licenses for marriage unknown
Lights burned before the Taziahs
Lime, applied to wounds
Liquors, fermented, prohibited to Musalmans
  used for food
Lollah, lal, the bird Estrelda amandava;
Loodocanah, the city and district Ludhiana
Looking-glasses in zenanahs;
  bride’s face first seen in
Lota, a brass water-vessel
Luchmee, Lakshmana, image of
Luggun, lagan a washing pan
Lungoor, langur, the ape Semnopithecus entellus
Mabaaruck Now-Rose, Nauroz mubarakMaccurrub, muqarrab, angel messengers
Madhaar, Madar, the saint
Magic, to bring rain;
  to cause fertility
Mahana, miyana, a kind of litter
Mahdhaar, madar, the tree Calotropis giganteaMahout, mahawat, an elephant driver
Mahrattas, raids of in the Panjab
Mahul, mahall the seraglio
Mahummud, Muhammad, the Prophet, his mission;
  his title;
  tales regarding;
  fixes Friday as the Sabbath;
  laws of the pilgrimage;
  his rules of conduct;
  laws regarding polygamy
Mahummud Baakur, Muhammad Baqir
Mahurrum, the Muharram festival;
  date of;
  ornaments laid aside at;
  immense expenditure on;
  second day observances;
  fifth day observances;
  last day observances;
  clothes given away;
  inauspicious for marriages;
  objected to by Sunnis
Majoob Soofies, majzub, ’abstracted’
Mango tree, the
Marriage, forced, prohibited;
  age for;
  settlements unknown;
  exorbitant expenditure on
Matunjun, muttajjan, meat boiled with sugar and spices;
Maulvee, maulavi, a doctor of the law
Mautunjun, see MATUNJUN
Mayllah, mela, a fair, a religious assemblage
Mayndhie, mendhi,
  the shrub Lawsonia alba, apllied to hands and feet;
  smeared on bride and bridegroom;
  procession of;
  sent to bridegroom by bride;
  smeared on horses;
  rite at marriage
Mayvour, mewa, fruit
Mazoor, Mazoorie, mazdur, mazdurni, a day labourer
Meals, among Musalmans
Meat, use of by Musalmans
Mecca, the holy city;
  the Holy House;
  life held sacred at;
  Black Stone at;
  see KAABAH
Medicine, native system of
Medina, the holy city
Meer, mir, a title of Sayyids
Meer Eloy Bauxh, Mir Ilahi Bakhsh
Meer Hadjee Shah, Mir Haji Shah, his life;
  makes his own winding sheet;
  listens to the reading of the Bible;
  views on fasting;
  tea drinking;
  describes the Hajj;
  describes Mecca;
  life at Ludhiana;
  adventure with a snake;
  adventures with tiger;
  his pilgrimage to Arabia;
  cures an Arab lady;
  attacked by pirates;
  purchases Fatimah, an Arab girl
Meer Hasan Ali, husband of the authoress
Meer Hasan Ali, Mrs., the authoress
Meer Nizaam ood deen, Mir Nizam-ud-din
Meer Syaad Mahumud, Mir Sayyid Muhammad
Meetah, meettah, mitha, mithai, sweet, sweetmeats
  cider made from the juice
Metals transformed into gold
Mhembur, minbar, mimbar, the pulpit of a mosque
Mhidie, al Mahdi, ’the Directed One’;
  signs of his coming;
  his birthday
Mina, maina, the bird Gracula religiosaMinerals, medicinal use of
Missee, missi, a preparation for staining the teeth
Mittie wallah, mithaiwala, a sweetmeat vendor
Moat, moth, the aconite-leaved kidney bean
Mocha, Mokha, a port on the Red Sea
Moghdhur, mugdar, a sort of dumb-bell or club used in athletic exercises
Mohur, a gold coin
  and alligators;
  affection for their offspring;
  and snakes;
  and treasure;
  use of antidotes for poison
Moollakhaut, mulaqat, a mourning assemblage
Mooltanie mittee, multani mitti, fuller’s earth
Moon, new, festival at;
  influence of;
  when full auspicious;
  drinking the;
  influence on wounds
Moonkih, Munkar, Munkir, the Recording Angel
Moonshie, munshi, a writer, secretary
Moosa, Musa, Moses;
  Musa al-Kazim, the Caliph
Moosul, musal, a pestle used for husking rice
Mortem, matam, mourning
Moses, Musalman title of;
  tale regarding
Moslem, Muslim, cousin of Husain
Mosque, absence of decoration in;
  caretakers of;
  at Kanauj;
  pollution of
Mourning, dress worn during the Muharram festival;
  chaff thrown on the head;
  head and feet left bare;
  for forty days after a death;
  shaving forbidden during
Muchullee, machhli, fish
Mucka Beg
Muckunpore, Makanpur
Mudgeluss, majlis, a mourning assembly
Muggalanie, Mughlani, a Moghul woman, a needlewoman
Mugganee, mangni, the marriage engagement
Muggrib, maghrib ki namaz, sunset prayer
Mukburrah, Mukhburrah, maqbarah, a mausoleum
Mukhdoom Jhaunneer, Makhdum Jahaniya Jahangasht, the saint
Mukhun, makkhan, butter
Mullie, malai, cream
Munall, munhnal, a pipe mouth-piece
Muntah, mantra, spells, incantations
Murdanah, mardanah, the men’s quarters in a house
Murseeah, marsiyah, a funeral elegy;
Musheroo, mashru, silk cloth permitted to be worn at prayer
Mushukh, mashk, a skin water-bag
Music in the zenanah
Musnud, masnad a pile of cushions, a throne
Musseah, Musseeah;
Myriam, Maryam, the Virgin Mary
Myrtle, the tree

Naalkie, nalki, a kind of litter
Naarah, nara, a string
Nadir Shaah, Nadir Shah, King of Persia
Najoom, najoomee, nujumi, an astrologer
Nala and Damayanti, tale of
Namaaz, namaz, the daily liturgical prayer of Musalmans
Namaazie, namazi, one given to prayer, a devotee,
  one who calls the people to prayer
Nativity of Jesus Christ, observed by Musalmans
Naunbye, nanbai, a bazar baker
Nautch woman;
  Nautchunee, nachni, a dancer
Neam, nim, the tree Melia Azadirachta;
  see NEEM
Neellah tootee, nila tutiya, blue vitriol, medicinal use of
New Moon festival, the
New Year’s Day, see NOU-ROSE
Nitre, manufacture of
Nizaam ood deen, Nizam-ud-din, the saint
Noah, Musalman title of;
  his place of burial;
  ark of, where rested
  see NUT
Nou-Rose, nauroz the New Year’s Day festival
Nudghiff Usheruff, Nejef, Mashhad ’Ali
Nujeeb, najib, a class of infantry
Nusseer ood Deen Hyder, Nasir-ud-din Haidar, King of Oudh
Nut, Nutt, nath, a nose-ring
Nuwaub, nawab, ’a deputy’, title of the rulers of Oudh
Nuzza, nazr, nazar, an offering from an inferior to a superior
Nykee, Nakir, the Recording Angel

Omens, at Nauroz festival;
  used in selecting a bride;
  at marriage
Omir, ’Umar, the second Caliph;
  said to have destroyed the Alexandrian library
Ood-ood, hudhud, the lapwing, hoopoe
Oostardie, ustadi, a teacher;
Orme, am, the mango
Orme peach, the peach
Ornaments, use of by women;
Otta, ’itr, otto of roses
Oudh, administration of justice in the Nawabi;
  Nawabs and Kings of

Paadishah Begum, Padshah Begam, the
Paak, pak, pure
Pachisi, the game
Paidshah, padshah, a King
Palace, the, at Delhi
Palkie, palki, the common palanquin
Pallungh, palang, a kind of bed
Paper, written, objection to burning;
  made of bamboo
Pataan, one of the Pathan tribe
Pawn, pan, betel leaf;
  not used during the Muharram festival
Pawndawn, pandan, a box to hold betel leaf
Peach, the
Pedigrees of Sayyids carefully kept
Peer, pir, a Musalman saint or holy man
Pellet bow, use of the
Pepul, pipal, the sacred fig tree, Ficus religiosaPickles, use of, and sale
Pigeon flying;
Pilgrims, regulations for;
  cloak worn by
Pillau, pilau, meat or fowl boiled with rice and spices
Pineapple, the;
  see UNANAS
Plague, an outbreak of
Poison detected by means of dishes
  among Indian kings
Pomegranate, the
Prayer, the call to;
  ’opening of difficulties’;
  times of, how announced
Prickly heat
Printing, not practised in Lucknow
Prisoners released to effect a cure of the sick or as a thank-offering
Punkah, pankah, a kind of fan;
  punkah wala, punkah wala, a fan-seller
Pappayah, papaiya, the papaw tree, Carica PapayaPurdah, pardah, a screen to conceal ladies
Purrh, pahar, a watch, a measure of time
Pyjaamah, paejama, drawers;
  stuff used in making

Quail fighting Quicksilver, use of in medicine

Racaab puttie, rikab patthari, a stone plate
Rain magic
Rainy season, the
Rajpoots, Rajputs, infanticide among
Ravenscroft, G., murder of
Red, the Sunni colour;
  of Husain
Reetah, ritha the soapnut, use of in medicine
Resident at Lucknow, the
Resurrection, doctrine of the
Ricketts, Mordaunt, Resident at Lucknow
Right hand used in eating
River, course of changed by a saint
Romall, rumal, a handkerchief
Rooey, rohu the carp fish
  smelling of, causes colds and sneezing;
  rose water;
  syrup, seeds, oil, uses of
Roshunie, roshanai, ink
Rozedhaar, rozadar, one who keeps a fast
Rumzaun, Ramazan, Ramzan, the festival
Rutt, rath, a bullock carriage
Ruzzie, razai a quilt
Ryott, ra’iyat a subject, a cultivator

Saabeel, sabil,
  the place where sherbet is distributed at the Muharram festival
Saadie, Shaikh S’adi, the Persian poet
Saag, sag, herbs of various kinds used in cooking
Saalik, salik, a devotee, a kind of Sufi
Saatarah, sitara, a guitar
Sabbath, the, among Musalmans
Sacrifice of animals at the Bakrah ’Id festival
Safdar Jang, Nawab of Oudh, tomb of
Sahbaund, Sawan, the fourth Hindu month
Sahib Logue, Sahib Log, Europeans
Saints’ tombs at Kanauj
Sainturh, sentha the grass Saccharum ciliare;
Sakeena Koobraah, Sakina Kibriya, daughter of Husain
Salaam-oon-ali khoon, salam ’alai-kum, ’Peace be with thee’
Sallon, salan, a curry of meat, fish, or vegetables
Sampwalla, sampwala, a snake-charmer
Sarchuk, saachaq, fruits, &c., carried in procession at a marriage
Saulgirrah, salgirah, the knot tied to mark a birthday
Scales, the, doctrine of
Scapegoat, released in times of sickness
Scorpio, moon of, inauspicious
Scorpions, mode of repelling
Seclusion of womem, origin of the custom
Secundah, sarkanda,
  roots of the grass Saccharum ciliare, used for mats and screens;
Secungebeen, sikanjabin, oxymel, vinegar
Seepie wallah deelie sukha,
  sipi wala gila sukha, moist or dry cuppers
Seer, scr, a weight of about two pounds
Serai, sarai, a native inn
Seur, suar a hog, a term of abuse
Seven, a lucky number
Shaah Jhee, Shahji, a beggar
Shaah Nudghiff, Shah Najaf, a shrine at Lucknow
Shaah ood Dowlah, Shah-ud-daula, a darvesh
Shah Allum, Shah ’Alam II, King of Delhi, his grave
Shah Allumgeer, Shah ’Alamgir, the Emperor Aurangzeb
Shah Jahan, the Moghul Emperor
Shahnama, the poem by Firdausi
Shah Nizaam ood deen, Shaikh Nizam ud-din Auliya, the saint
Shah Sherif ood deen Mahmood,
  Shah Sharif ud-din Mahmud, a darvesh
Shaving, discontinued during mourning
Shawm, Sham, Syria
Shawmie, Shami, a native of Syria
Sheah, Shiah, the Musalman sect;
  quarrels with Sunnis at the Muharram;
  their numbers compared with those of Sunnis;
  the creed of
Sheah-maul, shirmal, a kind of bread; see SHEERMAUL
Sheekaree, shikari, a huntsman
Sheermaul, shirmal, a kind of bread; see SHEAH-MAUL
Sheikh Mahumud, Shaikh Muhammad
Sherbet, sharbat, a drink, how made;
  distributed at the Muharram festival;
  payment for at marriages
SHERREFAH, SHERREEFHA, sharifah, the custard apple
Sheruff, Sharif, the governor of Mecca
Shimeear, Shimar, the chief agent in the murder of Husain
Shiraaz, Shiraz, a city in Persia
Shoes removed in sacred places and in houses;
  varieties of
Shooghur Allah, see SHUGGUR ALLAH
Shopkeepers, mode of doing business
Shroff, sarraf, a moneychanger
Shroud, the burial
Shubh-burraat, Shab-i-bara’at, the night of record, a festival
Shubnum, shabnam, ’dew’, a kind of fine cloth
Shuggur Allah, shukr Allah,
  ’Praise be to God!’; see SHOOGHUR ALLAH
Shujah ood Dowlah, Shuja ud-daula, Nawab of Oudh
Shutteringhie, shatranji, a striped floor-cloth
Sickley ghur, saikalgar, a polisher of arms
Sickness, attributed to spirits
Sikhs, the;
  campaign against
Silk, wearing of
Sin, repentance of
Singing women
Siraat, sirat, the bridge over which the soul passes
Sirrakee, sirki, the reed Saccharum
  ciliare, used for mats, &c
Sita ki Rasoi, a building at Kanauj
Slaves, domestic, condition of;
  female in the zenanah;
  liberated by or on the death of the owner;
  property of reverting to the master
Snake charmers, deception practised by
Snakes, superstitions regarding;
  and monkeys;
  tale of an ungrateful;
  an adventure with
Soap, substitutes for
Society of Musalman ladies
Solomon, King, tale of;
  the first Sufi
Soobadhaar, subahdar, a native officer, a viceroy
Soobadhaarie, subahdari, a province under a viceroy
Soobhoo namaaz, namaz-i-subh, the dawn prayer
Soofy, Sufi, a sect of Musalmans;
  consulted to solve mysteries;
  pretenders to piety;
  assemblage of with singing and dancing;
  principles of
Soojinee, sozani, a quilted cloth
Soonie, Sunni, the Musalman sect;
  rulers at Mecca
Soota-badhaar, Soutabardar, a mace-bearer;
Sota-badhaah; see SOOTA-BADHAAR
Spinach, varieties and uses of
Spirits, evil, exorcism of
Starvation, a cure for disease
Stockings, wearing of in the zenanah
Stone dishes
Subzah, sabzah, a song bird
Suffee Ali, Safiya ’Ilah, a title of Adam
Sulleed, tharid, a kind of bread
Sulmah, surma, antimony applied to the eyes
Sumdun Begum, samdhan begum, a connexion by marriage
Surraie, surahi, a long-necked water flagon
Surringhee, sarangi, a sort of violin
Sutkah, sadaqah, offerings of intercession
Suwaaree, sawari, an equipage, escort
Sweetmeats, sellers of;
  given to a man in a state of ecstasy,
Swine, held abominable by Musalmans
Sword exercises
Syaad, Sayyid, a class of Musalmans;
  their origin;
  care used and difficulty in making marriage engagements;
  respect paid to;
  dues received by
Syaad Ahmad Kaabeer, Sayyid Ahmad Kabir,
Syaad Harshim, Sayyid Hashim

Taaif, Ta’if, a fertile tract near Mecca,
Taarkhanah, tahkhanah, an underground room,
Taaseel-dhaar, tahsildar, a native collector of revenue,
Taaweez, taawize, ta’wiz, an amulet, talisman,
Tahujjoot, namaz-i-tahajjud, prayer after midnight,
Tale kee archah wallah,
  Tel ka acharwala, a seller of oil pickles,
Talismans; see TAAWEEZ
Tamarind tree, the, vegetation beneath it dying,
Tamerlane, Taimur Lang, introduces seclusion of women,
Tarantula, the,
Tattle, tatti, a screen, a device for cooling rooms,
Tawurshear, tabashir, a substance found in bamboos,
Tazia, ta’ziya,
  a model tomb carried in procession at the Muharram festival;
  not peculiar to India;
  not used by Sunnis;
  burial of,
Tea, use of,
Teeth, cleaning of, 59
Thonjaun, tamjhan, thamjhan, a kind of litter,
Throne, of the King of Oudh,
Tigers, tamed, wandering about the house;
  adventure with,
Time, Musalman division of;
  measured by a clepsydra,
Timoor, Taimur, his invasion of India,
Tin, use of in dyeing and in medicine,
Tope, a grove of trees,
Tor, tar, the palm tree, Borassus flabelliformis,
Toy sellers,
Trades in Lucknow,
Travellers excused from fasting,
Treasure, burying of,
Trees, speaking on the Mahdi’s birthday,
Tuckht, takht, a wooden platform on which men sit and sleep,
Tufaun, tufan, a storm,
Tumaushbeen, tamashabin, ’a spectator of wonders’,
Tundhie, thandi, a cooling draught taken at the breaking of a fast,
Turkaarie, tarkari, vegetables

Uberuck, abrak, talc, mica, Ulsee, alsi, linseed, Linum usitatissimum, Umbrella, a mark of dignity, Umultass, amaltas, the Indian laburnum, Cassia fistula, use in medicine, Ungeeah, angiya, an under-jacket or bodice, Ungeel, injil, Evangel, the Gospels, Unnah, anna, a nurse, Unrurkha, angarkha, a long tunic, Ununas, ananas, the pineapple, Ananassa sativa, Urzees, arziz, tin, used in medicine and dyeing, Usury, forbidden

Vakeel, wakil, an agent Vazeefah, wazifah, a passage read from the Koran Vegetables, use of as food Veil, worn by a bridegroom Venus, the conjunction of Vermicelli, used in the times of fasting Villoiettee Begum, Wilayati begam, ’the foreign lady’ Vizier, wazir, the prime minister at the Court of Oudh

Walking barefoot, a sign of mourning
Wax from the human ear administered to elephants
White ants
Widows, dress of;
  reduced numbers of;
  marriage of
Window glass, scarcity of
Witch, tale of a;
  hair plucked from the head of;
  has crooked feet;
  sucking out the vitals of a victim
Witchcraft, general belief in
Wives, prescribed number of;
  large numbers of married
Women, belief that they do not possess souls;
  seclusion of
Wounds, treatment of

Yaacoob, Ya’qub, Jacob Yeusuf, Yusuf, Joseph Yieyah, Yahya, St. John Yoube, Aiyub, Job Yumen, Yemen in Arabia Yuzeed, Yazid, second Caliph of the house of Umaiyah

Zahur morah, zahr mohra, the bezoar stone Zarbund, zerband, a waist string Zechareah, Zachariah Zeearut, ziyarah, ziyarat, a visit to a shrine Zeenahnah, the zenanah, described Zemindhaar, zamindar, a landowner Zohur namaaz, salatu-’z-zuhr, mid-day prayer Zuckhaut, zakat, alms for the poor Zynool auberdene, Az-zainu’l-’abidin


Introductory Notes  •  Preface to the Second Edition  •  Introduction  •  Introductory Letter  •  Letter I  •  Letter II  •  Letter III  •  Letter IV  •  Letter V  •  Letter VI  •  Letter VII  •  Letter VIII  •  Letter IX  •  Letter X  •  Letter XI  •  Letter XII  •  Letter XIII  •  Letter XIV  •  Letter XV  •  Letter XVI  •  Letter XVII  •  Letter XVIII  •  Letter XIX  •  Letter XX  •  Letter XXI  •  Letter XXII  •  Letter XXIII  •  Letter XXIV  •  Letter XXV  •  Letter XXVI  •  Letter XXVII  •  Bibliography of Works  • 

[Buy at Amazon]
Observations on the Mussulmauns of India (Large Print Edition)
By Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali
At Amazon