The Principles Of Aesthetics
by Dewitt H. Parker

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General Works


SANTAYANA, G. The Sense of Beauty, 1897; Reason in Art, 1906.
MUENSTERBERG, H. The Principles of Art Education, 1905; The
 Eternal Values, Part 3, 1909.
LEE and THOMPSON. Beauty and Ugliness, 1911.
CARRITT, E. I. The Theory of Beauty, 1914.
KNIGHT, WM. The Philosophy of the Beautiful, Part 1, 1891;
 Part 2, 1893.
PUFFER, ETHEL. The Psychology of Beauty, 1905.
BROWN, BALDWIN. The Fine Arts, 1892.
ROWLAND, E. The Significance of Art, 1913.
MARSHALL, R. Pain, Pleasure, and Aesthetics, 1894; Aesthetic
 Principles, 1895.
SULLY, J., and ROBERTSON, G. C. Aesthetics.
BOSANQUET, B. History of Aesthetics, 1904; Three Lectures on
 Aesthetics, 1914.
GORDON, KATE. Aesthetics, 1909.


LIPPS, T. Aesthetik, 1903-1905.
VOLKELT, J. System der Aesthetik, 1905-1914.
DESSOIR, M. Aesthetik und Allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft, 1906.
COHN, J. Allgemeine Aesthetik, 1901.
MEUMANN, E. Aesthetik der Gegenwart, 1912; System der
 Aesthetik, 1914.
UTITZ, E. Grundlegung der Allgemeinen Kunstwissenschaft, Bd. 1,
MUELLER-FRIENFELS, R. Psychologic der Kunst, 1912.
WITASEK, S. Grundzuege der Allgemeinen Aesthetik, 1904.
GROOS, K. Der Aesthetische Genuss, 1902.
LANGE, K. Das Wesen der Kunst, 1901.
FIEDLER, C. Der Ursprung der Kuenstlerischen Thaetigkeit, 1901.
KANT, I. Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790; English translation by
 J. H. Bernard, 1892.


TAINE, H. The Philosophy of Art, English translation, 1867.
SULLY-PRUDHOMME, R. F. A. L’Expression dans les beaux arts, 1883.
GUYAU, J. M. Les problemes de l’estetique contemporaine, 1884;
 L’Art au point de vue sociologique, 1889.
BRAY, L. Du Beau, 1902.
SEAILLES, G. Essai sur le genie en l’art, 1897.
SOURIAU, P. La suggestion en l’art, 1909.
LALO, CH. Les Sentiments esthetiques, 1910; Introduction
 l’estetique, 1913.
DUSSAUZE, H. Les Regies estetiques et les lois du sentiment, 1911.
FONTAINE, A. Essai sur le principe et les lois de la critique d’art,


CROCE, B. Estetica, 1902; English translation, 1909; French
 translation, 1904; German translation, 1905; Breviario di
 estetica, 1913.
PILO, M. Estetica.
PORENA, M. Che cos’ e il bello? 1905.


FECHNER, G. T. Vorschule der Aesthetik, 1876.
KUELPE, O. Der gegenwaertige Stand der experimentellen Aesthetik,
 in Bericht ueber den 2ten Kongress fuer experimentelle
 Psychologie, 1907.
STRATTON, G. M. Psychology and Culture, 1903.
VALENTINE, C. W. Experimental Psychology of Beauty.
MYERS, C. S. Introduction to Experimental Psychology, 1911.
WUNDT, WM. Physiological Psychology.
LALO, CH. L’Estetique experimentale contemporaine, 1908.

Works on the Origins of Art

HIRN, Y. The Origins of Art, 1900.
GROSSE, E. The Beginnings of Art, English translation, 1897.
WALLASCHEK, R. Primitive Music, 1903.
BUECHER, K. Arbeit und Rhythmus, 1899.
GUMMEBE, F. B. The Beginnings of Poetry, 1901.
GROOS, K. The Play of Man, 1901.
FRAZER, J. G. The Golden Bough, 1907-1915.
WUNDT, WM. Volkerpsychologie, 1911; Elements of Folk Psychology,
SPEARING, H. G. The Childhood of Art, 1913.

Additional References for Special Subjects

Chapter Six.–The Tragic.

CORNEILLE, P. Discours de la tragedie, 1660.
LESSING, G. E. Hamburgische Dramaturgic, 1767.
SCHOPENHAUER. The World as Will and Idea; English translation,
 Vol. 1, Bk. 3; Vol. 3, Ch. 27.
HEGEL, G. W. F, Vorlesungen ueber die Aesthetik, 3ter Abschnitt,
 3tes Kapitel.
HEBBEL, F. Ein Wort ueber das Drama, 1843.
LIPPS, T. Der Streit ueber die Tragoedie, 1891.
VOLKELT, J. Aesthetik des Tragischen, 1906; System der Aesthetik,
 Bd. 2, 1910.
BRADLEY, A. C. Oxford Lectures on Poetry, 1909.
BUTCHER, S. H. Aristotle’s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, 1898.
NIETZSCHE, FR. Die Geburt der Tragoedie, 1870.

Chapter Six.–The Comic.

LIPPS, T. Komik und Humor, 1898.
BERGSON, H. Laughter, English translation, 1913.
FREUD, S. Wit, and Its Relation to the Unconscious, English
 translation, 1916.
MARTIN, L. J. Experimental Prospecting in the Fields of the
 Comic,American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 16, 1905.
SCHOPENHAUER, A. The World as Will and Idea, English translation,
 Vol. 2, Ch. 8.
VOLKELT, J. System der Aesthetik, Bd. 2, 1900.
SULLY, J. Essay on Laughter, 1902.
SPENCER, H. Physiology of Laughter, in Essays, Scientific,
 Political and Speculative. SIDIS, B. Psychology of Laughter, 1913.
MEREDITH, GEORGE. An Essay on Comedy, 1897.

Chapter Seven.–The Standard of Taste.

TAINE, H. The Ideal in Art, 1867.
LEMAITRE, J. Les Contemporains.
FRANCE, A. La Vie litteraire.
BRUNETIERE, FERD. Questions de critique, 1889.
BABBITT, IRVING. The New Laocoon, 1910.
GATES, L. E. Impressionism and Appreciation, inThe Atlantic
 Monthly, July, 1900.
BALFOUR, A. J. Criticism and Beauty, 1910.
PATER, WALTER. The Renaissance, 1873.
SYMONDS, J. A. Essays, Speculative and Suggestive, 1890.
CAINE, T. HALL. Cobwebs of Criticism, 1883.
HENNEQUIN, E. La Critique scientifique, 1888.
SPINGARN, J. E. Creative Criticism, 1917.

Chapter Eight.–Music.

RIEMANN, H. Elemente der musikalischen Aesthetik, 1900.
HANSLICK, E. Vom Musikalisch-Schoenen, 11th ed., 1910.
GEHRING, A. The Basis of Musical Pleasure, 1910.
COMBARIEU, J. Music: Its Laws and Evolution, 1910.
GURNEY, E. The Power of Sound, 1880.
BUSONI, F. Sketch of a New Athetic of Music, 1911.
LALO, C. Esquisse d’une estetique musicale scientifique, 1908.
AMBROS, W. A. Die Grenzen der Musik und Poesie, 1872.
WAGNER, R. Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft; Oper und Drama.
STUMPF, C. Tonpsychologie, 1883, 1890, and articles in Zeitschrift
 fuer Psychologie.
HELMHOLTZ. Sensations of tone, 1895.
MEYER, MAX. Contributions to a Psychological Theory of Music,
 University of Missouri Studies, 1901,1. No. 1;
 The Psychology of Music, in American Journal of
 Psychology, 1903: 14.
BINGHAM, W. VAN DYKE. Studies in Melody, 1910.
LIPPS. Zur Theorie der Melodie, in Zeitschrift fuer
 Psychologie, 1902:27.
REVESZ, GEZA. Tonpsychologie, 1913.
SPENCER, H. The Origin and Function of Music.
BOLTON. Rhythm, in American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 6.
MEUMANN, E. Untersuchungen zur Psy. u. Aest. d. Rhythmus,
 in Philosophische Studien, X.
STETSON, R. H. A Motor Theory of Rhythm and Discrete Succession,
 in Psychological Review, Vol. 12.

Chapter Nine.–Poetry.

SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP. Defense of Poesy, 1581.
WORDSWORTH, WM. Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, 1800.
SHELLEY, P. B. A Defense of Poetry, 1821.
BRADLEY, A. C. Oxford Lectures on Poetry, 1909.
SCOTT, F. N. The Most Fundamental Differentia of Poetry and
 Prose, Modern Language Association Publications, V. 19, pp. 250-269,
MILL, J. S. Thoughts on Poetry and Its Varieties, in Dissertations
 and Discussions, Vol. 1.
SANTAYANA, G. Elements of Poetry, in Poetry and Religion, 1900.
LANIER, S. Science of English Verse, 1880.
EASTMAN, MAX. The Enjoyment of Poetry.
SOURIAU, P. La Reverie esthetique, 1906.
LIDDELL, MARK H. An Introduction to the Study of Poetry, 1902.
WERNER, R. M. Lyrik und Lyriker, 1890.
LOWELL, AMY. Tendencies in Modern American Poetry, 1917.
GUMMERE, F. B. A Handbook of Poetics, 1895.
ROETTEKEN. Poetik, 1911.
BURKE, EDMUND. A Philosophical Enquiry into Our Ideas of the
 Sublime and Beautiful, Part 4, 1756.
MACKAIL, J. W. Lectures on Poetry, 1911.
POE, E. A. The Philosophy of Composition; The Poetic Principle.
OMOND, T. S. A Study of Meter, 1903.
VERRIER, P. Metrique anglaise, 1909.
DILTHEY, W. Das Erlebnis und Die Dichtung, 1907.
STETSON, R. H. Rhythm and Rhyme, in Harvard Psychological Studies,
 Vol. 1.

Chapter Ten.–Prose Literature.

SCHOPENHAUER, A. The Art of Literature.
GOETHE AND SCHILLER. Correspondence, passim.
GREEN, T. H. The Value and Influence of Works of Fiction, 1862.
LEWES, G. H. Principles of Success in Literature, 1892.
ARNOLD, M. Essays in Criticism, 1869.
ZOLA, E. The Experimental Novel and Other Essays, translated by
 B. M. Sherman, 1893.
BESANT, W., and JAMES, H. The Art of Fiction, 1885.
PATER, W. Appreciations, with an Essay on Style, 1889.
STEVENSON, R. L. On Style in Literature, in Contemporary
 Review, 47:548.
BOURGET, P. Etudes et Portraits, 1911.
FLAUBERT, G. Correspondance, published 1887.
ELSTER, E. Prinzipien der Literaturwissenschaft, 1897, 1911.
FREITAG, G. Technique of the Drama, English translation, 1895.
MATTHEWS, J. B. A Study of the Drama, 1910.
JONES, H. A. The Foundations of a National Drama, 1913.
WOODBRIDGE, E. The Drama: Its Laws and Its Technique, 1898.
DE MAUPASSANT, GUY. Le Roman, in Pierre et Jean.

For additional references on Poetry and Prose, consult An Introduction to the Methods and Materials of Literary Criticism, by C. M. Gayley and F. N. Scott, 1899.

Chapter Eleven.–Painting.

MEIER-GRAEFE, J. Modern Art, English translation, 1908.
ROSS, DENMON. A Theory of Pure Design, 1907; On Drawing and
 Painting, 1912.
BERENSON, B. Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance.
POORE, H. R. Pictorial Composition, 1903.
VAN DYKE, J. C. Art for Art’s Sake, 1895.
UTITZ, E. Grundzuege der Aesthetischen Farbenlehre, 1908.
WAETZOLDT, WM. Die Kunst des Portraets, 1908.
WEIGHT, WM. H. Modern Painting, 1915.
LIPPS, T. Aesthetik, Bd. 1, 5ter Abschnitt, Bd. 2, 7tes Kapitel.
GOETHE. Farbenlehre.
SOURIATJ, P. L’Estetique du mouvement, 1889.
STRATTON, G. M. Eye Movement, and the Aesthetics of Visual
 Form, in Philosophische Studien, XX.
COHN, J. Experimented Untersuchungen ueber die Gefuehls-betonung
 der Farben, in Philosophische Studien, 10: 522.
BAKER and CHOWN. Experiments on Color, in the University of
 Toronto Studies.
LEE and THOMPSON. Beauty and Ugliness, in Contemporary Review, 1897.
CHEVREUL, M. E. The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors, 1855.

Chapter Twelve.–Sculpture.

HILDEBRAND, A. The Problem of Form in Painting and Sculpture,
 English translation, 1907.
RODIN, A. Art, English translation, 1912.
HERDER, J. G. Plastik, 1778.
LIPPS, T. Aesthetik, Bd. 2, 5tes u. etes Kapitel.
LESSING. Laocoon, 1766.
CORNELIUS, H. Elementargesetze der bildenden Kunst, 1908.

Chapter Thirteen.–Architecture.

LIPPS, T. Raumaesthetik, 1897; Aesthetik, Bd. 1, 1903.
SCOTT, G. The Architecture of Humanism, 1914.
ROBINSON, J. B. Architectural Composition, 1908.
VAN PELT, J. V. Essentials of Composition, 1913.
GUADET, J. Elements et theorie de l’architecture, 1909.
VIOLLET-LE-DUC, E. E. Entretiens sur l’architecture, 1863-72.
RUSKIN, J. Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1857.
FRANKL, P. Die Entwicklungsphasen der neueren Baukunst, 1914.
WORRINGER, W. Formprobleme der Gothik, 1912.
WOELFFUN, H. Renaissance und Barock, 1888.

Chapter Fourteen.–Art and Morality.

PLATO. Republic, Ion, Phaedrus, Symposium, Gorgias.
TOLSTOY, L. What is Art? English translation, 1899.
SCHILLER, F. Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man, 1793-1795.
MORRIS, WM. Hopes and Fears for Art, 1882.
WILDE, O., MORRIS, WM., and OWEN, W. C. The Soul of Man,
 The Socialist Ideal–Art, and The Coming Solidarity.
RUSKIN, J. Lectures on Art, 1900.
SYMONDS, J. A. Essays, Speculative and Suggestive, 1890.
PAULHAN, FR. Le Mensonge de l’Art, 1907.
WHISTLER, J. McN. Ten o’Clock, 1888.
GUYAU, J. M. L’Art au point de vue sociologique, 1889.
CASSAGNE, A. La theorie de l’art pour l’art en France, 1906.

Chapter Fifteen.–Art and Religion.

LANG, A. Myth, Ritual, and Religion, 1913.
DELLA SETA, A. Religion and Art, 1914.
HARRISON, J. Ancient Art and Ritual, 1913.
MURRAY, G. Four Stages of Greek Religion, 1912.
REINACH, S. Orpheus, 1909.
SANTAYANA, G. Poetry and Religion, 1900.
FRAZER, J. G. The Golden Bough.
HEGEL, G. W. F. Introduction to the Philosophy of Fine Art,
 translated by Bosanquet, 1886.
MUENSTERBERG, H. Philosophie der Werte, 1908.
WUNDT, WM. Volkerpsychologie, 1911.
SANTAYANA, G. Three Philosophical Poets, 1910.


Preface  •  Chapter I - Introduction: Purpose and Method  •  Chapter II - Definition of Art  •  Chapter III - The Intrinsic Value of Art  •  Chapter IV - The Analysis of the Aesthetic Experience: The Elements of the Experience  •  Chapter V - The Analysis of the Aesthetic Experience: The Structure of the Experience  •  Chapter VI - The Problem of Evil in Aesthetics, and Its Solution Through the Tragic, Pathetic, and Comic  •  Chapter VII - The Standard of Taste  •  Chapter VIII - The Aesthetics of Music  •  Chapter IX - The Aesthetics of Poetry  •  Chapter X - Prose Literature  •  Chapter XI - The Dominion of Art Over Nature: Painting  •  Chapter XII - Sculpture  •  Chapter XIII - Beauty in the Industrial Arts: Architecture  •  Chapter XIV - The Function of Art: Art and Morality  •  Chapter XV - The Function of Art: Art and Religion  •  Bibliography  • 

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